Chapter 11 A Growing Country

Ch.11 A Growing Country

1.       textile – cloth or fabric

2.       interchangeable parts – parts made by a machine to be exactly the same in size and shape

3.       mass production – making many identical products at once

4.       productivity – the amount of goods and services produced by workers in a certain amount of time

5.       entrepreneur – a person who takes risks to start a business

6.       famine – a widespread shortage of food

7.       reform – an action that makes something better

8.       temperance – controlling or cutting back on the drinking of alcohol.

9.       injustice – unfair treatment that abuses a person’s rights

10.   annexation – the act of joining two countries or pieces of land together

11.   manifest destiny – the belief that the United States should spread across the entire North American continent, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean

12.   front – where the fighting takes place in a war

13.   cession – something that is given up

14.   wagon train – a line of covered wagons that moved together

15.   forty-niner – a miner who went to California in 1849

16.   gold rush – when many people hurry to the same area to look for gold

17.   boomtown – a town whose population booms, or grows very quickly

18.   A time of rapid changes in manufacturing and transportation in the early 1800’s is called the Industrial Revolution.

19.   Samuel Slater opened the first cotton mill in the U.S.

20.   Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin and used interchangeable parts.

21.   Francis Cabot Lowell built a mill near Boston, Massachusetts, that had both cotton-spinning machines and power looms to weave cloth.

22.   In 1831, McCormick built a horse-drawn reaper.

In 1837, Deere invented the steel plow.

23. The National Road stretched from Cumberland, Maryland, to Vandalia, Illinois.

24. Robert Fulton invented the steamboat in 1807.

25. In 1825, the Erie Canal connected the Hudson River to Lake Erie.

26. Immigrants are people who move to another country to live.

27. Thousands of Germans and Irish left Europe because of:

                a. war

                b. crop failure (Irish Potato Famine)

28. The Second Great Awakening was a widespread religious movement when thousands of  

       people joined Christian churches.

29. Two important reform movements were:

                a. antislavery movement

                b. temperance movement

30. Elizabeth Cady Stanton was the leader of the Seneca Falls convention in 1848. Susan B. Anthony also stood for women’s rights.

            31. Americans were not welcome in Texas because:

                                a. Americans outnumbered the Mexicans

                                b. Americans refused to give up slaves

32. The Americans were defeated at the Alamo. The Mexicans were defeated at San Jacinto. There Santa Anna released Texas.                                                                                               

            33. In 1845 Texas became part of the U.S.

            34. The Mexican War was a fight over the boundary between Texas and Mexico.

            35. Mexico gave up about 1/2 of its land in 1848. The U.S. paid $15 million dollars for it.

            36. The Oregon Trail was a route from Missouri to Oregon over the Rocky Mountains.

            37. Marcus and Narcissa Whitman were missionaries who settled in eastern Oregon in 
            38. John Fremont  explored parts of the West and helped make maps of the Oregon
            39. In 1847, Mormon leader Brigham Young took his people west. They settled in
                  present-day Utah.
            40. Gold was discovered in California in 1849. Thousands of people, called forty-niners,
                  rushed  there to dig for gold.