Chapter 13 Civil War and Reconstruction

Ch.13 Civil War and Reconstruction

  1. border state – a slave state that stayed in the Union
  2. casualties – soldiers that are killed or wounded
  3. draft – a system in which the government chooses people to serve in the military
  4. emancipation – the freeing of enslaved people
  5. camp – a place where people live for a time in tents, cabins, or other rough shelters
  6. home front – all the people in a country who are not in the military during wartime
  7. civilian – a person who is not in the military
  8. telegraph – a machine that sends electric signals over wires
  9. total war – the strategy of destroying an enemy’s resources
  10. desert – to leave the army without permission
  11. Reconstruction – the period when the South rejoined the Union
  12. assassination – the murder of an important leader
  13. Freedmen’s Bureau – an organization that provided food, clothing, medical care, and legal advice to poor blacks and whites
  14. impeach – to charge a government official with a crime
  15. sharecropping – a system in which landowners let poor farmers use small areas of their land, and in return, the farmers gave the landowner a share of the crop
  16. Jim Crow – laws that segregated African Americans from other Americans
  17. segregation – the forced separation of the races
  18. The advantages of the North (Union):
    1. more people
    2. more factories
    3. more railroads

       19. The advantages of the South (Confederacy):

a.       fighting to protect their way of life

b.      better military leaders

20. A strategy is a plan.

21. Robert E. Lee led the Confederate army.

      Ulysses S. Grant led the Union army.

22. The Emancipation Proclamation declared that slaves in the Confederacy were free.

23. 1863 was the turning point of the Civil War:

                a. Emancipation Proclamation was signed

                b. Union victory at Vicksburg, MS (Union controlled the Mississippi R.)

                c. Union victory at Gettysburg, PA

24. President Lincoln gave a speech called the Gettysburg Address. He declared that the Union was 

      fighting to make sure that American democracy would survive.

25. Clara Barton started the American Red Cross.

26. Mathew Brady photographed the Civil War.

27. General Sherman led Union soldiers through the South leaving destruction wherever they went. This

       is called Sherman’s March.

28. In 1865 Lee surrendered the Confederate army at Appomattox Court House, Virginia.

29. John Wilkes Booth shot Abraham Lincoln in 1865.

30. After Lincoln’s death, Vice President Andrew Johnson of Tennessee became President.
31. The Black Codes limited the rights of former slaves to travel, vote, and work in certain jobs.

32. Southerners who helped the government during Reconstruction were known as scalawags.

33. Carpetbagger was a nickname given to Northerners moving south after the war.

34.  13th amendment: ended slavery

       14th amendment: gave citizenship to blacks

       15th amendment: black men could vote

35. The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) was started in 1868. They used violence to show their views against blacks.

36. In 1881, a former slave named Booker T. Washington opened the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama.

37. George Washington Carver invented over 300 products made from peanuts.