Brannan, Janet - CS 5th Grade
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Chapter 14 Changes on the Plains
Ch. 14 Changes on the Plains
1. transcontinental – crossing a continent
2. prejudice – an unfair, negative opinion that can lead to unjust treatment
3. homestead – a settler’s home and land
4. Exodusters – an African American settler who called him or herself after Exodus, a book of the Bible
5. drought – a long period with little or no rain
6. sodbuster – name given to Great Plains farmers because they had to break through so much thick soil, called, sod, to farm
7. demand – the amount of something that people want to buy at certain prices
8. supply – the amount of something that people want to sell at certain prices
9. railhead – a town where railroad tracks begin or end
10. barbed wire – twisted wire with a sharp barb, or point, every few inches
11. reservation – land that the government set aside for American Indians
12. habitat – the area where an animal or plant normally lives or grows
13. extinct – when a certain type of plant or animal no longer exists
14. assimilate – to change a group’s culture and traditions so that it blends with a larger group
15. Two ways the west was linked to the east:
b. Transcontinental Railroad
16. Samuel Morse invented a code of dots and dashes to send telegraph messages.
17. Two companies built the transcontinental railroad:
a. Central Pacific
b. Union Pacific
18. The transcontinental railroad was completed on May 10, 1869, at Promontory Point, Utah.
19. The Homestead Act gave 160 acres of land to people willing to farm that land for 5 years.
20. Hardships the Plains:
a. Cold Winters
d. Heavy Rain
i. Hot, Dry Summers
j. Prairie Fire/ Lightning
21. Vaqueros were Mexican cowhands.
22. Cattle ranchers sent their herds on long cattle drives to railheads so that the cattle could be shipped to the East and North.
23. Cattle drives ended for 4 reasons:
a. settlers put up barbed wire fences
b. spread of railroads to
c. overgrazed land
d. the winter of 1886-1887 killed thousands of cattle
25. Nomads move from place to place to find food and water.
26. At the Sand Creek Massacre the Colorado militia attacked a Cheyenne village and ignored their attempt to surrender. Almost ½ of the people in the village were killed. After this, fighting among Indians, soldiers, and settlers increased.
28. After Sitting Bull’s death, Chief Big Foot led many Ghost Dancers to hide in the Badlands of South Dakota. The fighting there became known as the Massacre at Wounded Knee.
29. 3 reasons the buffalo became nearly extinct:
a. settlers killed buffalo for meat
b. cattle spread disease to buffalo
c. hunters shot buffalo for sport
30. The Dawes Act took reservation land away from Indian nations and split it into smaller pieces.