Chapter 15 Big Business and Big Cities

Ch. 15 Big Business and Big Cities

1.       corporation – a business in which many people own shares, or parts, of the business

2.       competition – what occurs when more than one business tries to sell the same goods or service

3.       monopoly – a company that has no competition

4.       labor union – an organization of workers that tries to improve pay and working conditions for its members

5.       strike – when workers refuse to work

6.       persecution -  unfair treatment or punishment

7.       ethnic group – a group of people who share a language or culture

8.       tenement – a rundown or poorly maintained apartment building

9.       stockyard – a fenced area where large numbers of animals such as hogs and cattle are kept

10.   skyscraper – a very tall building

11.   rapid transit – a system of trains used to move people around cities

12.   slum – a poor, crowded part of a city

13.   settlement house – a community center for people in cities

14.   progressives – reformers who think governments should make laws to protect workers, consumers, and citizens’ rights

15.   muckraker – someone who “rakes up,” or points out, unpleasant truths

16.   The typewriter was first produced by E. Remington & Sons.

17.   In 1872, Elijah McCoy invented an oil cup.

18.   In 1867, Margaret Knight invented a machine that made paper bags with a flat bottom.

19.   Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone in 1876.

20.   Thomas Edison created over 1,000 inventions including the phonograph in 1877 and the electric light bulb in 1879.

21.   Granville Woods improved the telephone, telegraph, and transportation systems.

22.   In 1856, British scientist Henry Bessemer invented a process to make steel.

23.   Andrew Carnegie made money in the steel business.

24.   John D. Rockefeller formed the Standard Oil Co. in 1870.

25.   A philanthropist is a person who gives money to projects that help other people.

26.   The Knights of Labor was the first large labor union. It was formed in 1869. Its goals were safer working conditions and an eight-hour workday.

27.   The American Federation of Labor (AFL) was started in 1886. Samuel Gompers was its president. The AFL was a large group of trade unions.

28.   About 25 million immigrants moved to the U.S. in the years between 1880 and 1924.

29.   Immigrants came to America for:

                a. work

                b. to escape war or persecution

                c. greater political freedom

30. Immigrants checked in at immigration stations like Ellis Island in New York Harbor and Angel Island in San Francisco Bay. There they were questioned and examined.

31. In 1882, Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act which kept out almost all new Chinese immigrants.


32. Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr were reformer who opened the Hull House, a settlement house in Chicago in 1889. There immigrants could learn English, get medical care, and find jobs.

33. President Theodore Roosevelt made reforms by:

                a. passing the Pure Food an Drug Act

                b. passing the meat Inspection Act

                c. forming national parks

34. The 19th amendment was passed in 1920, allowing women to vote.

35. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was founded in 1909 to work for equality for African Americans.

36. The movement of African Americans from the South to the North was called the Great Migration.