Chapter 2 The First Americans

Ch. 2 The First Americans

1.       glacier – a huge, thick sheet of slowly moving ice

2.       migration – a movement from one region to another

3.       agriculture – farming, or growing plants

4.       civilization – a group of people living together who have systems of government, religion, and culture

5.       pueblo – the Spanish word for town

6.       surplus – extra

7.       potlatch – a large feast that could last several days

8.       clan – a group of related families

9.       irrigation – a way of supplying water to crops with streams, ditches, or pipes

10.   staple – a main crop

11.   ceremony – an event at which people gather to express important beliefs

12.   lodge – a type of home that Plains Indians made using bark, earth, and grass

13.   nomad – a person who moves around and does not live in one place

14.   travois – equipment similar to a sled that was made from two long poles and usually pulled by a dog

15.   longhouse – a large house made out of wood poles and covered with bark

16.   confederation – a type of government in which separate groups of people join together, but local leaders still make many decisions for their group

17.   wampum – pieces of carefully shaped and cut seashell made into strings or belts

18.   barter – to exchange goods without using money

19.   Some scientists believe the first people came to North America over a land bridge between Alaska and Asia called Beringia. These Paleo-Indians lived by hunting animals.

20.   Farming led to villages, more people, and civilizations because people stayed in one place to care for their crops.

21.   The Adena, Hopewell, and Mississippians were Mound Builders. They built giant mounds, or hills, out of the earth.

22.   The Ancient Pueblo built houses of mud and stone in the Southwest as large as modern apartment buildings.

23.   The Aztecs lived in Mexico and built the city of Tenochtitlan.

24.   The Tlingit were one of the largest American Indian groups in the Pacific Northwest. Salmon and wood were two of their important resources.

25.   The Hopi are among the oldest Indian groups in the Southwest. They used irrigation to grow crops in the dry climate there.

26.   The Comanche were one of the most powerful Plains Indians groups. They lived on the Great Plains of North America. Since they hunted buffalo, many of the tribes were nomadic. Some groups on the eastern plains built villages and planted crops.

27.   Most Eastern Woodland peoples used farming, hunting, and gatherings to get food. The clan mothers chose the chiefs who led the nations.


28. The Haudenosaunee League:

1.  Mohawk

2.  Oneida

3.  Onondaga

4.  Cayuga

5.  Seneca