Chapter 9 Creating a Nation

Ch. 9 Creating a Nation

  1. constitution – a written plan for government
  2. citizen – an official member of a city, state, or nation
  3. territory – land ruled by a national government but which has no representatives in the government
  4. ordinance – a law
  5. federal – a system in which the states share power with the central government
  6. republic – a government in which the citizens elect leaders to represent them
  7. compromise – a settlement in which both sides give up something they want
  8. ratify – to accept
  9. democracy – a government in which the people have the power to make political decisions
  10. checks and balances – a system that lets each branch of government limit the power  of the others
  11. veto – to reject
  12. unconstitutional – when a law does not agree with the Constitution
  13. amendment – a change to the Constitution
  14. inauguration – the official ceremony to make someone President
  15. Cabinet – a group chosen by the President to help run the executive branch and give advice
  16. political party – an organized group of people who share similar ideas about government
  17. interest – what people pay to borrow money
  18. capital – the city where the government meets
  19. The Articles of Confederation were the first plan of government in the U.S. They created a weak national government that left most power with the states.
  20. The Northwest Ordinance said:
    1. A territory could become a state
    2. No slavery in the NW Territory
  21. Daniel Shays led a group of angry farmers in Shays’ Rebellion. It showed that a weak national government could not keep order.
  22. Delegates met in Philadelphia to change the Articles of Confederation. Instead, they wrote a new plan called the Constitution.
  23. The Great Compromise:
    1. Each state gets 2 senators
    2. House of Representatives based on population
  24. James Madison is known as the Father of the Constitution.
  25. James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay wrote essays called the Federalist. They said the U.S. needed a strong central government.
  26. Federalists were for the Constitution.

Antifederalists were against the Constitution.

27.          The Constitution was ratified in 1788 after a Bill of rights was added.

28.          Branch                                  Job                                         Who?

                Legislative                          make laws                          Congress (Senators & representatives)

                Executive                            carry out laws                    President & cabinet

                Judicial                                 decide meaning of laws               judges – Supreme Court


29. The first 10 amendments are called the Bill of Rights.


30.          Secretary of State – Thomas Jefferson

                Secretary of the Treasury – Alexander Hamilton

                Secretary of War – Henry Knox

                Attorney General – Edmund Randolph


31. George Washington became the first President under the Constitution.


32. Disagreements in the Cabinet led to the first political parties:

                a.  Democratic-Republican party

                b.  Federalist party